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Matta N Tmaziɣt Tunṣibt Ara Ad Yalin ?

Matta n Tmaziɣt tunṢibt ara ad yalin ?

Deg tikelt-aya taneggarut yeri usili d usehwi ɣef temsalt n Tmaziɣt ; ma nutlay fell-as ma hennid d iles n imaziɣen n Dzayer s tɣemṛay-nnes jemla. U xaṭer timawit neɣ tutlayt n bunadem nettat d taḥmilt ; yifen tiɣawsiwin yyiḍ am lmakelt d tmezduɣt, ayef yetbedda wemdan u ad iseggem iman-nnes amek ilaq aldira ad as-d-iban webrid n tmudri deg tmetti-nnes ; neɣ de gammas n tmettiyin yyiḍ.

Yunes Aɣuggali
Yunes Aɣuggali

Amennuɣ ɣef Tmaziɣt ad tili d tunṣibt ur aɣen-yezmir-ca ad t-nekta deg terbaɛt n tektabin ; axaṭer uglen yudan ula d idammen-nsen seg kem-aya n isuggasen. Aɣen-ihemmen nečni deg aḍriṣ-aya netta d asurif aneggaru ani yemda usaru mani tetna Tmaziɣt d iles unṣib u tudef aked deg tamendawt taneggarut-aya ayef yefren usqamu aɣelnaw, u netta d asurif ay yiɛermen labas ma nuqqel ɣer wa ayen ay yiɛeddan. Beṣṣeḥ matta n Tmaziɣt-aya ad d-yalin u ad d-iweṣfen tmetti tadzayrit s lekmal-ness u ad d-yuɛan azal i tmeslayin tiyemmatin n wegdud uk ? Ma nezmer ad nesseqṣi u ad d-nini d Tamaziɣt d tatrart yetwaxelqen da-ya kan s wayes yeṣṣiwweḍ asili n imusnawen d imeɣnasen ; neɣ d Tamziɣt di-n yenkeɛ wergaz d tmeṭṭut seg hemẓi n tqemmaḍin ?

Da-yyitina ilaq ad neṭṭef taɣṛit seg ammas u ad nuɛa aqelmun ɣef ayen yetwannayen deg leqhawi d yeɣmisen ; waɛan ɣadi d wawra deg annar yessur deg-s lḥeb d ukerfa. Tamaziɣt-aya n ayet bab-nnes ; xseɣ ad iniɣ n imusnawen n yiles (tasnilest) d nehni ad yebbin u ad gnin mamek qqarent tiẓriwin ay yiqaɛden ɣef leqwanen usnanen n tutlayet deg umaḍal jemla kemla ; d Tanglizit, d Tafransisit s lexṣaṣ ay yebdan arzaw deg uḥric-aya n tesnilest seg lqern 17.

Deg iles n bunadem ay yeqnen ɣer tmetti-nnes ɛerment rfayeɛ d sbayeb ayef i rezzu wemdan u yeqnen daɣ ɣer tutlayt-nnes netta u ɣer temnaṭ neɣ amkan ay yezdeɣ (1). Deg herrar n yal yict seg-neɣ ireffed gara-ness labas n lemmayer deg tmeslayt neɣ negget n umeslay ay yesbeḥrayen u di-na beɛd tweɛɛa-d lejwab i useqṣi : mani-s cek ? (2) Mala amek ay yiẓer David Cristal deg zmam-nnes « The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language » arzaw deg lxilaf yellan jar n imeslayen n tict n tutlat (Tanglizit) deg mukan yemmefraqen yetɛin mliḥ ɣef useqdec yexda berk i yiswi n uweṣṣef. Cristal yeqqar belli ilaq ad nebḍa jar n sen n tmusal deg ayen yeɛnan tutlayt n Tanglizit : tamezwarut negget n umesli n temnaṭṭ, wis sen d ameslay n temnaṭṭ s yiman-nnes. Tamezwarut teweɛɛa ɣer wamek yetwanṭaq wawal (accent,pronenciation), tɣawsa ay yetɛawanen nezzeh bac ad tesned temnaṭṭ mani yezdeɣ bab n uherrar. Wis sen teweɛɛa ɣer tjeṛṛumt d umawal yettutcen tikti ɣef umkan ani yezdeɣ wemdan (dialecte régional).

Ɣer Noam Chomsky, temsalt tif labas tiẓrawin tiqdimin dug uḥric n tesnilest. Chomsky iẓer beli ma nexs ad nerzu deg tutlayt seg tutlayin u ad nefhem taɣessa-nnes ilag ad nugur s labas wern leqwanen n tɣessa n tutlayt ; yeɛni tajeṛṛumt d imeslayen yetwanṭaqen, u ad d-naf tizemmar yyi-ḍ ur twazrayen-ca seg beṛṛa u yeqnen kan ɣer wallaɣ n wemdan (cognivitisme). S wawal yict, Chomsky ifeṣṣel mliḥ, ɣer-s netta tutlayt ukan tebḍa ɣer sen n timnalin yesɛan azal : tamazwarut tezmert n tutlayt yellan ɣer yal amdan (la compétence), da-y yuca amedya s uɣerẓul n wexxam ay yetnabaḥen berk, beṣṣeḥ ldufan ilemmed awal qičč s qičč id n wussan. Wis sen d azal a sɛan wawalen deg tutlay (la performance), u s ta-y ad nezmer ad nɛeddi seg leqwanen iqbuṛen n tesnilest (tajeṛṛumt d negget n umesli) ɣer tɣawsiwin ur twaqqarent s yimi ur twaẓrayent ɛinani ; tamedya leḥwal n tnefsit d wallaɣ n wa ay yettutlayen ma yella yecreh neɣ d ameɣcuc (3).

Ma neẓwa ɣer Tefransisit, ad d-nlaqqa André Martinet yeqnen azal n tutlayin yexḍa ɣer leqwanen n tira neɣ n wenṭaq beṣṣeḥ s unamek ahent-yifen uk ; yeɛni tawwuri n tutlayt (la fonctionalité, le foctinalisme). Ɣer Martinet amek teqqen tjṛṛumt ɣer leqwaleb n wawal (unité linguistique) ; lemɛani neɣ inumak yefren deg yal lqaleb ur ilaq-ca ad t-wakksen seg-s xaṭṭer yetwaḥsab d amur seg-s (4). Amawal n tutlayt ixalef tejeṛṛumt-nnes axaṭṭer taneggarut-aya ḥecṛen deg-s yeḥricen n wefran ay yetwaḥsaben d ckal i tlelli n wemdan aldira yettutlay ; ta-y ma nuɛa awelleh i wa yettusemman s trumit (l’éconimie de la communication linguistique), i wamma bac ur nxenneq-ca tajeṛṛumt d wa tettutc d laqwanen ila ad neẓr s sen n tiṭṭawin ɣer tjeṛṛumt n tmeslayin ay yemlalen tict n tutlayt (les variations linguistiques). Deg tutlayt kullec yettenbeddal u ad yili ɣer-s udem d atrar ; beṣṣeh wa ay yetaqqalen s uwelleh ɣer wazal n yal aherrar yezmer ad yesserg aduf (le noyau, la base) seg wi-n ay yibedlen (5).

Ay yetwannan ɣef yilsawen ay yizewren deg maḍal, ad yetwan ɣef Tmaziɣt s wa a yennan imusnawen n tesnilest Tamaziɣt. Salem Chaker yeflala-d ṛṛay-nnes deg temsalt am tziri yesfawayen sallas. Matta yenna Martinet d wi-din ad yessergen imaziɣen seg tala n cwal d ucelwec. Bac ad yili iles unṣib ay sekkayen i yal amden adzayri timanit-nnes n wawal, ilaq yal agdud seg timmuzɣa ad yerfed tmeslayt-nnes ɣer lemqam n tutlayin tunsibin uk, yeɛni ilaq ad yefra lxilaf yellan jar n yal n tmeslayt s tict (la comparaison intra-dialectale, puis celle de l’iter-dialectale), seg di-n ad yerg yiǧǧ n wuden unṣib. Da-y ilaq ttawil d lxedmet tameqqṛant ara ad d-yilin ma tella « tacadimit n usezdeg d usegmi n tmaziɣt » (académie d’aminagement et de développment de la langue Amizighe), amek yesqir weḥric -3 bis- deg tmendawt n 10 yebrir 2002 (6), aked wa n yennar 2016. Tamedya yezmer ad t-nuc s matta texdem tegduda n Fṛansa bac ad tessegmi timeslayin n le breton, le basque, neɣ l’occiton mani iqeddacen deg yal temnaṭ qeṛṛan tameslayt-nsen.

Yetwasek useqṣi i Mas Abderrazak Dourari aprofisur n uselmed unnig deg tusna n tutlayt ; taseddawit n Dzayer, anemhal n « ugezdu aɣelnaw n useqri n Tmaziɣt », ma Tamaziɣt ara ad yalin d tunṣibt d ti-n yetwaxelqen d tatrart deg udem n Taɛṛabt lfuṣḥa yesattawen deg tutlayt tayemmat (7), yenna-d belli axeyyer n Tmaziɣt tunṣibt leɛmeṛ ad d-yili amek nexs neččnin. Ɛerment timeslayin deg Lmeɣreb u nehnti ay yucin  teṣwira i tmetti, beṣṣeḥ aseqri n tutlayt ilaq ad yili ɣef laqalb n yal n temnaṭ amek yetedder-it ayet bab-nnes. U da-y ilaq ad d-nini daɣ belli welli-ca n tutlay yeṣfan amek ur yelli-ca n ljens yeṣfan. Tamziɣt yetwaxelqen d tatrart tusi-d deg imer mani imeɣnasen n umennuɣ ufin aseɛṣeg d amegran seg teɣmeṛt n yudan n tsertit ay yexsen ad ɛeṛben agdud ; lexṣṣaṛt da-y tetwella fell-asen yexḍa ɣef tytlayt s yiman-nnes.

Tella temsalt tict ; amek yerni yenna-d Mas Dourari, yal tutlayt tettutc u tettawi s ɣer tutlayin yyiḍ, nexs neɣ nemmexs. Tafransist terfed s-ɣer Tanglizit u Tanglizit terfed s-ɣer tanglizit. Awal « lfirdaws » n teɛṛabt yexḍa d Taɛṛabt, yusi-d seg Tiranit. Ur yezmir ḥed ad yekkes awalen ibeṛṛaniyen seg tutlayt-nnes, matta isawa Jaques Touboun i Tafransisit deg asuggas n 1995 ; sima yexs ad yekkes awalen uk n tanglizit ; tewell-as ɣer werni, amedya : yessuɣel awal n « week-end » ɣer « fin de semaine », agdud ur yeɛrig u ikemmel yeqqar « week-end ». Lqanun n tegduda tadzayrit seg-ma tuca azal i Taɛrabt taklasikit deg asuggas 1996, ass-a ur yewwiḍ-ca ɣer iswi-nsen wern 10 n isuggasen, tamsalt maci n wechal n tmurt (le patriotisme) beṣṣeḥ d tawuri n tutlayt deg tidet (la communication fonctionnelle), yerni yenna-d Mas Dourari i weɣmis « dépêche de la kabylie ».

Yunes Aɣuggali

Note :

(1), (2) David Cristal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language, regional variations, , published by BCA ; 1995, p.151 .
(3) Noam Chomsky, Language and Mind, The formal nature of language, competence and performance, published by Cambridge University Press ; 2006, p.121.
(4) André Martinet, Functional Grammar, p.1327
(5) Christos Clairis, André Martinet et La Grammaire, université Paris Descartes ; Sorbonne, p.7-8 .
(6) L’article est paru dans la revue Asinag, une publication de l’institut royale la culture amazighe, N°08, 2013 a Rabat.
(7) Dépêche De La Kabylie, 18-10-2006, source : http//www.depechedekabylie.com

Asegzawal :

*Tmetti/timettiyin : la société/ les sociétés
*Tunṣibt : officielle
*Asaru : film
*Tamendawt : la constitution
*Tasnilest : la linguistique
*Tiẓri/tiẓriwin : la théorie/les théories
*Tamnaṭ : la région
*Tikti : l’idée
*Taɣessa : la structure
*Anamek/inumak : le(s) sens
*Timanit n wawal : l’autonomie linguistique
*Tasertit : la politique

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